UMBER is a natural earth which owns shades in the hues of brown: they can be more or less warm, according to their grade of calcination (the one we chose here has a quite warm tone). Their color comes from a mixture of iron and manganese oxides. They're very common all over the world, but the best varieties, like the one we chose to prepare this watercolor, come from Cyprus. Like all the earths it's used since millennia by humankind, till present times. After the Reinassance it was used a lot to create shadows or backgrounds in paintings.
Colouring agent: Iron and manganese oxides
C.I.: PBr 7